From January 1, 2016 China will allow couples to have two children. Finally, China has ended ‘one child policy’ after three and a half decade. The policy was introduced in 1978 to curb over surging population and also curb the demands for resources.
According to government data, the ‘old child policy’ has prevented over 400 million births in the country which helped in population control.
So the question arrives why it is so important to take such measure as China is still the world’s most populated country with 1.37 billion people? Let’s find out rationally.
1-Grim demographic crisis-Over the year China has faced a grim demographic crisis. The ‘one child policy’ has created severe labor shortages in the country as the country has rapid increase in ageing population, but not same increase in younger population due to birth control.
In, fact after adopting this policy, China has become an aging country with more people above the age of 50. Of course, no country would like to have a scarcity of youth as the younger generations are the ones which take the economy to the next level of development.
2-Increased the number of disabled population-The number of people who are aged at 60 or over in China has reached 212 million. It accounts around 15.5 per cent of the country’s population. Also, the number of disabled elderly people reached at 40 million. By 2050, China is expected to have nearly 500 million people over 60 years age.
It would exceed the population of the USA. If it happens then it would have a very negative impact over economy of China.
3-Skewed Sex Ratio-The efforts to limit family size by adopting ‘one child policy’ has resulted into skewed sex ratio of males to females. As there was only option to have one child and Chinese traditional rural families prefer boys over girls so many of them restore to infanticide to ensure they have a son. It will create a severe crisis for the female population in country in the near future.
According to an estimate, approximately 40 to 50 million Chinese men will never marry, and an estimated 12 to 15 percent of Chinese men will be unable to find a mate within the next seven years.
4-Birth tourism–Many reports claim that Chinese women are giving birth to their second child overseas in countries like Hong Kong, and the USA.
Now the new rule will allow them to bear a second child in the country rather going overseas.
5-Gross Human Right Violation- Adopting such a policy like ‘one child policy’ is a breach of human rights and China has faced severe criticisms across the globe.
According to a 1968 proclamation of the International Conference on Human Rights, “Parents have a basic human right to determine freely and responsibly the number and the spacing of their children.”
6-Socialization-As families were allowed to have only one child, it results in a higher tendency toward poor social communication and cooperation skills amongst the new generation, as they have no siblings at home to better communicate, understand and develop the socialization.
What will be the biggest impact of new policy?
As per an estimate, China has 140 million women of childbearing age who have already raised a child. After the new law is adopted, about 90 million of them are expected to have a second child. It will help to have more people in the labor force by 2050.